Peralta struck out a career-high 13 in seven innings, and the Brewers beat the Cubs 2-1 on Saturday night. It marked the sixth time this season that Cubs batters fanned at least 16 times in a game.
"We chased a lot of pitches," Chicago outfielder Chris Coghlan said.
Peralta (17-11) was the key in the victory, though, allowing five hits and one walk in 109 pitches as the Cubs' season strikeout total climbed to 1,465.
"We weren't able to string together a whole lot of offense," Chicago manager Rick Renteria said.
Rodriguez pitched a scoreless ninth for his 348th career save, and 44th this year, to move ahead of Randy Myers.
"This is a big accomplishment," Rodriguez said. "Coming into spring I didn't know what to expect.
"If my career ends tonight, definitely, I can look back and say I had a wonderful career," said Rodriguez, who wasn't implying that his career was over.
Lucroy's double off Tsuyoshi Wada (4-4) in the fifth inning snapped a 1-1 tie and gave the All-Star his 46th double as a catcher, topping the 45 hit by Texas' Ivan Rodriguez in 1996. Lucroy has 53 doubles this year, tying the Brewers' franchise record. Seven were hit when he played first base.
Rodriguez, who can become a free agent after the season, was signed during last offseason to set up Jim Henderson. Henderson, bothered by inflammation in his right shoulder, was removed from the closer's role on opening day and pitched only 11 1/3 innings.
Rodriguez has converted all but five save opportunities in 69 games.
Wada allowed two runs, eight hits and one walk in five innings. He struck out four.
"He kept us in the ballgame," Renteria said.
Carlos Gomez hit his 23rd homer and doubled.
The Cubs scored their only run on an RBI double by Anthony Rizzo in the third inning.
Lucroy's double scored Gomez from second and gave Milwaukee a 2-1 lead.
Chicago's Edwin Jackson pitched in relief for the first time in exactly three years when he played for the St. Louis Cardinals. He pitched a scoreless seventh inning.
Cubs: Jacob Turner will pitch in the season finale on Sunday. He is 2-0 with a 0.60 ERA in three starts against Milwaukee this year.
Brewers: Mike Fiers will wrap up the season for Milwaukee. In three career games, Fiers is 2-0 with a 0.63 ERA against Chicago.