Victorino sustained the injury while running the bases against Tampa Bay on Wednesday. He has not played since then, so the move is retroactive to Thursday.
To replace Victorino on the roster, the Red Sox recalled right-hander Matt Barnes from Triple-A Pawtucket.
Boston manager John Farrell said the team "needed to add another arm to the bullpen."
Farrell said Victorino is improving. But the manager added, "With the number of innings our bullpen is pitching, that was the overriding thing."
Victorino is batting .143 in 12 games.
Barnes pitched in five games with Boston last season and had a 5.63 ERA in two appearances with Pawtucket this season.