Spangenberg was scheduled to start at third base and bat eighth in Monday's game against Arizona.
Spangenberg was hitting .331 with two homers and 22 RBIs with Double-A San Antonio.
The Padres also recalled left-hander Robbie Erlin from Triple-A El Paso and selected right-hander Leonel Campos from Triple-A El Paso.
Erlin made his big league debut with San Diego in 2013. Campos will make his big league debut the first time he pitches.
San Diego also transferred first baseman Yonder Alonso and left fielder Carlos Quentin from the 15-day disabled list to the 60-day DL. Alonso had surgery on his right wrist Friday and Quentin is out with a bone bruise in his left knee.